(This is based on former President K.R. Narayanan`s keynote address at a seminar in Beijing in June 2004 to mark Panchsheel`s fiftieth anniversary.) At the time of India`s independence, relations between India and China had not been so bitter since 1962. With America preferring Pakistan at the time, India felt it was good to maintain friendly relations with its neighbour, China. After the 1962 war, which declared that the agreement was not welcome, India and China renounced full diplomatic relations after a 15-year hiatus. Although the immediate Prime Minister Nehru tried to establish good relations between the two countries through the Panchsheel agreement, he and the 1962 war between the two countries failed. Chinese President Xi Jinping said on Tuesday that the country was ready to cooperate with India to try to lead the Panchsheel agreement during a meeting with Prime Minister Narendra Modi on the sidelines of the Brics summit in Xiamen. The Panchsheel agreement is part of reciprocal relations and trade between India and Tibet on the territory of China. According to V. V. Paranjpe, an Indian diplomat and a Chinese expert, Panchsheel`s principles were first publicly expressed by Zhou Enlai: «While he eventually received the Indian delegation for Tibetan trade negotiations. In April 1954, India, which considered Tibet to be part of China, reached an agreement with China on the «Panchsheel» principle.
The main points of the Panchsheel agreement were: Although the immediate Prime Minister Nehru tried to establish good relations between the two countries through the Panchsheel agreement, he did not succeed and the 1962 war took place between the two countries. Their first formal treaty codification took place in 1954 in an agreement between China and India – the trade and transport agreement (exchange of notes) between the Tibet region, China and India, signed in Beijing on April 29, 1954.   Panchsheel was subsequently adopted in a series of resolutions and declarations around the world. The five principles of peaceful coexistence, known as the Panchsheel Treaty: non-interference in other internal affairs and respect for the territorial integrity of the unity and sovereignty of the other (from Sanskrit, Panch: five, just: virtues) are a set of principles to govern relations between states.