Each Schedule I country is required to submit an annual report on inventories of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from well sources and distances under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol. These countries designate a person (called the «designated national authority»), who establishes and manages his or her inventory of greenhouse gases. Almost all non-Schedule I countries have also established a designated national authority to manage their Kyoto commitments, in particular the «CDM process.» It defines the GHG projects they wish to propose for accreditation by the CDM Steering Committee. The Paris Agreement also provides, for the first time in an international climate agreement, that we must «strive» to limit the temperature increase to 1.5oC (Article 2). In Paris, the IPCC was invited to present a new special report (known as SR1.5) in 2018 on the effects of global warming of 1.5oC above pre-industrial levels. In addition, the parties are working to improve global greenhouse gas emissions «as soon as possible» (Article 4). Australia, the world`s largest exporter of coal and one of the world`s most polluting greenhouse gases per capita, has been criticized for years for its refusal to sign Kyoto. «Australia`s official declaration today that we are becoming members of the Kyoto Protocol is an important step in our country`s efforts to combat climate change at home – and with the international community,» Rudd said. Barker et al. (2007, p. 79) have evaluated the literature on cost estimates of the Kyoto Protocol.  Due to the United States` non-participation in the Kyoto Treaty, the cost estimates were significantly lower than the estimates of the previous IPCC Third Assessment Report. Without the participation of the United States and using the Kyoto flexible mechanisms fully, the cost was estimated to be less than 0.05% of Schedule B GDP.
This is compared to previous estimates of 0.1 to 1.1%. Without the use of flexible mechanisms, costs were estimated to be less than 0.1% without U.S. participation. This is compared to previous estimates of 0.2 to 2%. These cost estimates were considered to be based on a great deal of evidence and convergence in the literature. In 2001, the last meeting (COP6 bis) continued in Bonn  at which the necessary decisions were taken. After some concessions, proponents of the protocol (under the leadership of the European Union) managed to secure the agreement of Japan and Russia by allowing for increased use of carbon sinks. At the COP6 re-meeting in Bonn, considerable progress was made on a final text on the rules for carbon sinks. The reductions that can be used to offset the increase in emissions have been defined to include a wide range of activities.
These activities include forest cultivation, reforestation and improved forest, crop and pasture management practices. There were no overall restrictions on the amount of immersion credits that could be used; Instead, countries received quotas that were set out in Schedule Z of the Bonn Agreement and were consistent with their individual circumstances.  Until May 2012, the United States, Japan, Russia and Canada had announced that they would not sign the second Kyoto commitment period.  In November 2012, Australia confirmed that it would participate in a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol and New Zealand confirmed that this would not be the case.  Since Kyoto, Australia has participated in cop4 (Buenos Aires), COP5 (Bonn), COP6 (The Hague), COP6 Part 2 (Bonn) and COP7 (Marrakech). The progress of the protocol is best described as long, laborious and complex. The withdrawal of the United States in March 2001, during the interval between COP6 and COP 6 2, which was reconvened, was a negative for the protocol. In a statement by President George W. Bush, he said the United States would not ratify the protocol, saying the agreement was «fundamentally flawed.» The United States is responsible for