11 Yirritja and Dua are terms used throughout Arnhem to refer to partial classifications. All human beings, animals and plants are divided into sub-areas, which defines rights to land and resources and defines kinship. The term junggayi refers to land interests and the resulting decision-making and ceremonial responsibilities arising from the relationship with the country, either by the mother`s father, the father`s mother and, in some cases, the mother`s mother. See Chapter 6 for an extrapolation of these concepts with regard to the southern Gulf of Carpentaria. Kakadu National Park offers an alternative route to mining for the future confrontation with the mainstream economy through employment and the development of agricultural and tourism businesses. Kakadu National Park also provides traditional landlords with a stream of income through rent and other lease payments. In 2005-2006, these payments totalled $1.1 million (2006 Superintendent of National Parks: 18). However, as an institution that serves many interest groups, the park also provides barriers to other forms of economic activity based on indigenous livelihood activities. The 2006 draft management plan recognizes that small-scale commercial exploitation of plants and animals by indigenous peoples is already taking place in the park, particularly with regard to art production. The same document also highlights indigenous aspirations for activities such as «harvesting busch-tuckers for sale, harvesting crocodile eggs for sale to crocodile arms, and catching live fish for sale to aquariums and pet stores» (Director of National Parks and Kakadu Board of Management 2006: 63).
However, the proposed and existing mechanisms to promote such economic activities appear to recognize indigenous cultural prerogatives, but subject the implementation of these activities to the general authorizations required by the Nature Protection and Conservation Act (Cth) of 1999 and carried out through the Superintendent of National Parks (Altman and Larsen 2006: 3; Director of National Parks and Cockatoos Board of Management 2006: 64). While Aboriginal aspirations to increase employment opportunities and business development in the park are recognized, no specific approach is defined (Altman and Larsen 2006: 3; Director of National Parks and Cockatoos Board of Management 2006: 33-4). While considerable organizational complexity has emerged in the region as a result of the Fox Inquiry, with a number of organizations having assumed limited responsibility for Indigenous affairs, no specific and local organization has been able to meet the expectations of economic self-determination advocated by fox Inquiry (Altman 1983a: 121). . . .